What led to the emergence of middle class in 18th century in France

Describe the emergence of the middle class in the 18th

Who constituted the middle class in the French society in

  1. The Rococo in the Eighteenth CenturyFrench Origins.In the years immediately following the death of King Louis XIV, design in France began to take on an entirely new feeling. On the one hand, public buildings continued to be constructed using the classically influenced designs that French architects and royal patrons had favored since the early seventeenth century
  2. The Rise of the Middle Class Category: 18th century With the industrialization, the British middle class grew larger and more influential as the number of financiers, factory owners and capitalist farmers in­creased. The upper class still possessed the land and titles, but the industrial middle class had the money
  3. The middle class simultaneously emerged out of and contributed to a complex, uneven, and contradictory process of political, economic, and social change. Although the middle class owed much to a Revolutionary legacy that attacked rank and privilege, it also contributed decisively to the hierarchies that came to mark the antebellum United States

Explain the emergence of the middle class in the 18th century

  1. In France, the established men of letters (gens de lettres) had fused with the elites (les grands) of French society by the mid-18th century. This led to the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street, the domain of a multitude of versifiers and would-be authors
  2. ~~The eighteen century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woollen and silk textiles that were either exported or bought by the richer members of society
  3. Perhaps the most important thing to emerge from the 1832 Act, however, was that it now distinguished the middle classes from the lower classes. This was largely due to the relaxation of the property laws. The County franchise was extended to include adult men who owned copyholds worth at least 10 pounds a year
  4. Describe the middle class in three points. [CBSE 2013] Answer: The following points describe the middle class in French society. (a) The middle class was a social group that emerged in France in the 18th century. This class made money through an expanding overseas trade and by manufacturing goods like woollen and silk textiles
  5. The class system underwent some serious changes during the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime categorized French society into three estates: the First Estate consisted of the clergy, the Second.
  6. During eighteenth to nineteenth century, Britain started their first Industrial Revolution, which brought Britain's social class into a different stage, and caused the emergence of the new classes, such as middle class. Before the Industrial Revolution, people's standard of living and working conditions were very simple

revealed in the eighteenth century. This was the strengthening and perpetuation of the system of peasant ownership. It is well known that this ownership was gradually estab-lished during the Middle Ages under the guise of feudal tenure. The peasants, from the beginning of the Middle Ages, were completely freed from servitude in most parts o An Emerging Middle Class. Since the Revolution essentially ended the feudal system in France, one effect that would greatly influence French culture was the emergence of a middle class or bourgeoisie. Society would never be the same, as the middle class exerted increasing influence on how things are done History of Europe - History of Europe - The rise of organized labour and mass protests: Mass leisure coexisted interestingly with the final major social development of the later 19th century, the escalating forms of class conflict. Pressed by the rapid pace and often dulling routine of work, antagonized by a faceless corporate management structure seemingly bent on efficiency at all costs.

What led to the emergence of the middle class in the 18th century. Ask questions, doubts, problems and we will help you By the 17th century, this middle class was supporting principles of natural rights and constitutional government against the theories of divine right and privilege of the sovereign and the nobility. Thus, members of the bourgeoisie led the English re volution of the 17th century and the American and French revolutions of the late 18th century The decline of the guilds was only one symptom of the rise in population. Another was the rise in urban poverty, as pressure on resources led to price increases that outstripped wages. In late 18th-century Berlin, which was solidly based on bureaucracy, garrison, and numerous crafts, a third of the population still lacked regular work 68. What was the strong demand of the emerging middle class in Europe during the 19th century? [Foreign 2016] Answer/Explanation. Answer: Explanation: Freedom of markets and abolition of restriction on the movement of goods and capital were strong demands of the emerging middle class in Europe during the 19th century

The Victorian middle-class is largely associated with the growth of cities and the expansion of the economy. The term was used from around the mid-eighteenth century to describe those people below. Overview. During the Gilded Age, male and female office workers expanded the ranks of the middle class. Larger incomes and increased leisure time among middle- class workers fostered a culture of consumption and popular amusements in American cities. The wealthiest Americans debated whether and how to use their fortunes to improve society This led to reduced marginalization of women in Paris. The emergence of salons allowed for leadership and involvement for women in intellectual areas in Paris in the early 18th century. 1. In the early 18th century, several specialty movements emerged, allowing for citizens to have authority and status in certain realms Thus, few seem to have played a very important role in the revolution, rejecting the Marxist assertion that the capitalist bourgeoisie led the revolution. Another important class in 18th century France, was the middle bourgeoisie or the professional classes, which included people like lawyers, doctors, teachers etc

The Rise of the Middle Class. With the industrialization, the British middle class grew larger and more influential as the number of financiers, factory owners and capitalist farmers in­creased. The upper class still possessed the land and titles, but the industrial middle class had the money. During the whole of the 18th century, the landed. The publishing industry grew exponentially in the first half of the 18thC. as the expanding literate class demanded more material, and the material that appealed most to this class was the novel The Age of Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. Centered on the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, this movement advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state

Key Takeaways Key Points. TheAge of Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. Centered on the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, this movement advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state Two of the wealthiest sources of patronage—the monarchy and the Church—were now gone. In their stead arose an increasingly prosperous middle class eager to express its status, and its new sense of national pride, through the purchase of art. By the middle of the 17th century a new market had emerged to meet the artistic tastes of this class At the turn of the 18th century, though society was legally divided into the privileged groups (nobility and clergy) and the groups with burdens (peasants), it was also true that various middle-class groups also enjoyed a number of privilege In France and Italy the proportion of lower-middle-class voters was much higher, and the assembly members were predominantly middle class, with leaders often from the legal profession. Throughout the century middle-class groups were concerned that radicals and socialists would exploit the very evident social and economic inequalities that.

(a) Austria-Hungary (b) France-Netherlands (c) Spain-Portugal (d) Scotland-Ireland Ans : (a) Austria-Hungary 20. What was the main occupation in the mid 18th century in Europe? (a) Trade and commerce (b) Peasantry (c) Craftmanship (d) All of the above Ans : (b) Peasantry 21. What was the main feature of the pattern of lan Growing Middle Class • The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through overseas trade, from manufacturing of goods and professions. • This class was educated believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth

Article by: Matthew Taunton. Dr Matthew Taunton takes us through 19th-century suburbia, showing how aspirations to respectability led the Victorian lower-middle class away from political involvement. The homogeneity and apathy of the suburbs provided rich satire for writers, as well as a setting for dystopian and science fiction. Read more 1. In many European countries, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was underway in the year 1848. Explain with suitable examples_ Ans 1. In European countries, in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle dames was underway. (1) It was parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers The style as a whole was derived from the popular and unpretentious comic operas of the early and middle eighteenth century, especially those of the so-called Neapolitan School. In consequence of the new taste that developed in the first half of the eighteenth century, there developed a new type of opera, the opera buffa, or comic opera The eighteenth century has been described as the age of a number of things: reason, change, enlightenment, and sensibility, to name but a few. Germans described the eighteenth century as a pedagogical age, and this moniker seems particularly apt in the context of both attitudes toward children and the experience of childhood With the rise of the middle class, more people wanted access to music performances and music education. A new artistic aesthetic, Romanticism, replaced the ideals of order, symmetry, and form espoused by the classicists of the late eighteenth century. Romantics valued the natural world, idealized the life of the common man, rebelled against.

French citizens in the 18th century were also subject to income taxes. Like the capitation, these taxes were raised to offset the costs of France's imperial wars. The first of these income taxes was the dixième, levied by Louis XIV in 1710 at the rate of one-tenth of annual income The culture of France has been influenced over the centuries by the country's turbulent history, its varied topography, and its long-standing contacts with neighboring countries, as well as its colonies. In the 19th century, Paris became the cultural hub of the world for its decorative Art Nouveau style, and for several centuries before that. The eighteenth century is known in the social history of England for the rise of the middle classes. With the unprecedented rise in trade and commerce the English masses were becoming increasingly wealthy and many hitherto poor people were finding themselves in the rank of respectable burgesses

1. A Brief History Of Entrepreneurship Contents Earliest Period Middle Ages 17th Century 18th Century 19th Century & 20th Century 2. Earliest Period • Marco polo , as a go-between was an Italian. • He wants to trade routes to the far East The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban In France, the eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of a social group, termed as the _____ . Answer: Middle class. Question 5. The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in _____ . Answer: France. Question 6. The agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille on _____ Emergence of Sociology in Europe UNIT 1 EMERGENCE OF SOCIOLOGY IN EUROPE. Niharika Bhatt. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Emergence of Sociology in Europe UNIT 1 EMERGENCE OF SOCIOLOGY IN EUROPE Marxist interpretations of class conflict between the aristocracy and emergent middle class are unhelpful in describing the political situation in eighteenth-century Britain and its literary works. Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, British society remained under the firm authority of the monarchy, aristocracy, and the landed gentry

Compared to England, other European nations in the 1830s a. were willing to accept somewhat more state responsibility for the education of the working class. During the first half of the nineteenth century, urban servants a. were at the mercy of their employers. b. were prohibited by law from attaining any form of education. c. had much in common with factory workers and artisans in lifestyle 19th Century Feminist Movements. What has come to be called the first wave of the feminist movement began in the mid 19th century and lasted until the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, which gave women the right to vote. White middle-class first wave feminists in the 19th century to early 20th century, such as suffragist leaders Elizabeth. capitalists and the middle class or bourgeoisie rose, the monarchs ceded power to a more representative structure. 3) The Enlightenment - during the 17th and 18th century there were great scientific and social advances. Discoveries of oxygen, electricity, calculus, among many other findings led to practical applications in agriculture and industry

What conditions led to the development of a new middle

Q.8. Socially and politically dominant class in Europe during mid-eighteenth century was_ . (a) The Nobility (b) The landed aristocracy (c) The Church (d) The absolute monarchs Ans. (a) Q.9. The denial of universal suffrage in Europe, led to_. (a) Revolution 19th-century anti-Semitism. A French anti-Semitic cartoon, depicting the Jewish banker Rothschild. The 19th century was a period of industrialisation, scientific discovery and the adoption of modern values. Despite this, it produced a resurgence in anti-Jewish prejudice. This 19th century anti-Semitism was particularly intense in Russia, where.

The Third Estate Makes History . The Third Estate would become a very important early part of the French Revolution. In the aftermath of France's decisive aid to the colonists in the American War of Independence, the French crown found itself in a terrible financial position.Experts on finance came and went, but nothing was resolving the issue, and the French king accepted appeals for an. The 18th century witnessed the emergence of social groups termed as middle class who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from manufacturing goods and exporting them. In addition to merchants and manufacturers, the Third estate included professions such as that of lawyers or administrative officials The History of France: The Road to French Absolutism. Absolutism was a system of government in which all sovereignty resided with the king, true to Louis XIV's dictum: I am the state.. Particularly in France and Germany, the wars of religion had seriously weakened national governments and monarchies. Nobles had regained a great deal of.

Which social group emerged in France in 18th century

  1. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of the German States, it occurred only during the 19th century. In its wake, new social groups came into being, a working class population and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals
  2. The clergy and the nobles led a life of luxury and enjoyed numerous privileges. On the other hand, the peasants and workers lived a wretched life. They groaned under heavy taxes and forced labour. The middle-class comprising of lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc also suffered humiliation at the hands of the clergy and the nobles
  3. Beginning in the latter part of the sixteenth century and continuing up to the middle of the nineteenth century the trans- Atlantic trade in slaves expanded tremendously in West Africa. The European powers began to enhance their links with African slave traders and by the eighteenth century slaves were an important element in the trade.
  4. Which social group emerged in the 18th Century in France? Answer In the 18th Century, social group termed as middle class emerged in France. (ii) On 20 June, representatives of the third estate led by Mirabeau and Abbé Sieyès, assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. Emergence of middle class and.
  5. With the rise of the middle classes in the nineteenth century, the bourgeoisie became the arbiters of cultural taste and art production. The term 'bourgeoisie' is most commonly used in relation to the emerging middle and upper-middle classes specifically in France. Proletariat: the workers or working-class population. In the context of.
  6. In the 18th century, the family was an extended family, where grandparents lived with their children and grandchildren. Families in the 18th century were large, consisting of the father, mother, and grandparents and averaged five or more children. Children were important assets because they took care of their parents when they were old. There were no rest homes for people to go to when they.

The Enlightenment was a significant contributing factor to the emergence of sociology in the late 18th and early 19th century. The Enlightenment is considered to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. It is the creation of a new framework of ideas about man. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article provides information about the emergence and development of sociology! Sociology is one of the newer of the academic disciplines, tracing its origins no further back than the middle of the nineteenth century. It has a short history. Sociology, the science of society, is the youngest and it came to be established only [ Old Cold Warriors see in 19th-Century socialism the seeds of the Stalinist terror, and Marxists see in it the hope for a better world. My own biases are somewhat more mixed: sympathy with some of the aims of the socialists, admiration for their analyses of capitalism, and general hostility for the forms of socialism which dominated much of the.

The 18th century Age of Enlightenment was firmly entrenched in the capacities of Human Reason. But by the end of the century and into the early part of the 19th century, a reaction set in. Man was not a disembodied brain, a thinking machine, but an emotional and organic individual. The man of reason became the new man of feeling Seventeenth-century Dutch art has long been recognized as a distinctly urban form of visual expression. In the Netherlands rapidly expanding cities and towns were the main location for artists, patrons and the market, while much of the subject matter of Dutch art reflects the experiences and aspirations of middle-class urban elites The Decline of Spain & Emergence of Competing Powers. Chris has an M.A. in history and taught university and high school history. In this lesson, we explore the changing geopolitical situation in. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life. petite bourgeoisie- is a French term that describes the white collar social class. The petite bourgeoisie compromised of professions such as shopkeepers, small merchants, school teachers, and librarians Q.21. Discuss the rise of middle class in France. Ans: The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woollen and silk textiles that were either exported or bought by the richer members of society

The middle class was not highly visible until the high middle ages (1050-1300). This is because medieval cities were beginning to place a high focus on trade at the beginning of the high middle ages. This allowed for the growth of towns into bustling centers of commerce. Eventually the bourgeoisie, or artisans and merchants, developed their own. The rising middle class. A Family Dinner (detail). Antoon Claessins. ©The Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. During the Tudor and early Stuart period there was a great increase in social mobility, with wealth and political influence shifting from the nobility and clergy towards a middling class of gentry, yeomen and burghers Contents1 French Society During the Late 18th Century 2 A Growing Middle Class Envisages an End to Privileges3 The Outbreak of the French Revolution4 Causes of French Revolution4.1 Social Cause 4.2 Economic Cause (The struggle to survive)4.3 Political Cause5 France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy6 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen7 The Jacobins8 The Reign of [ The rising of the middle class had great influences on the arts of the classical era. The arts of this time were different than the era's before because they were not focused on the Church or the wealthy as much. This was the beginning of a new stage in life for everyone as the arts had expanded their scope to the middle class as well

Ch. - 1- The French Revolution- Extra Questions and Notes ..

French Revolution: Timeline, Causes & Summary - HISTOR

  1. Education and respect would lead to the emergence of a powerful, outspoken middle class of women. By the mid nineteenth century, the Seneca Falls Declaration on the rights of women slightly alters Thomas Jefferson's words by saying: We hold these truths to be self-evident;.
  2. Conditions in France in 1798. The way France (and most European countries) was governed in the eighteenth century was very different from democracy. We refer to France before the revolution as the Old Order or the Ancien Regime. It was a rigid system and only to a certain class of people were privileged
  3. Often this 18th-century era is called the Rococo, a time period roughly beginning with the 1715 death of France's Sun King, Louis XIV, until the French Revolution in 1789. It was France's Pre-Revolutionary time of growing secularism and continued growth of what became known as the bourgeoisie or middle class
  4. The middle class would be a hybrid class, which would take advantage of the wisdom and wealth of the oligarchy and monarchy but also would consist of the greatest number of people as was the case in a democracy (Sabine & Thorson, 1973). In other words, when property and power are widely distributed among individuals of a given society, there.
  5. According to Sylvia Neely's A Concise History of the French Revolution, the average 18th-century worker spent half his daily wage on bread. But when the grain crops failed two years in a row, in.

Describe the social conditions that led to the outbreak of French Revolution. i. French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates, and only members of the third estate paid taxes. ii. About 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate The Influence of the French Revolution: The French Revolution of 1789 is an important landmark in the history of Europe. It was the first great uprising of the people against the autocracy of the ruler. It generated ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity which crossed the boundaries of France and influenced whole of Europe In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought o be base on its wealth, specifically its gold supply Colbert using his principle theory, insisted that the French sell abroad and buy nothing back and used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans in.

quently, European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the emergence of the seculariza-tion that has characterized the modern Western men-tality. Although some historians have argued that this secularism first arose in the Renaissance, it never devel-oped then to the same extent that it did in the eight-eenth century It is during the early eighteenth century that the identities of individual silk designers become known. One designer, an Englishwoman named Anna Maria Garthwaite (1690-1763) is notable for the fact that a large collection of her designs have survived, and silks woven to these designs have been identified ( C.I.66.14.2 ) The Third Estate Makes History . The Third Estate would become a very important early part of the French Revolution. In the aftermath of France's decisive aid to the colonists in the American War of Independence, the French crown found itself in a terrible financial position.Experts on finance came and went, but nothing was resolving the issue, and the French king accepted appeals for an.

The eighteenth century was an aristocratic century, particularly in England. In all areas of western Europe, the aristocratic class gained economic and social stature. In England they even achieved political supremacy. Aristocrats were not the only class to benefit from economic and social transformations in eighteenth century The former predominated in the manufacturing industry to the end of the 18th century, and it still played a large role in the first half of the 19th century. The use of forced labor contributed to the considerable expansion of the distinctive form of gentry enterprise in the 18th century, to the detriment of the development of the bourgeoisie The Importance of Napoleon . Napoleon Bonaparte was a key figure in the development of the nation-state. Amid the chaos of the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century, most remaining medieval and feudal laws were overturned and a truly national law code was established

The Rococo in the Eighteenth Century Encyclopedia

Economic, Social and Political Change in 19th Century. The profound economic change that occurred in the early 1900's was largely influenced and formed by the industrial revolution, in particular the second wave that occurred in the late 1800's. The revolution as a whole resulted in the change from economies based on agriculture and farming. The pretentiousness of much of the middle-class housing is reflected in the proliferations of styles on pompous facades but during the century there was much serious consideration of the needs of housing, especially through the Arts and Crafts movement and the social revolutions that were heralded during the middle years of the century The philosophes were instrumental in shaping revolutionary ideas. The philosophes (French for 'philosophers') were writers, intellectuals and scientists who shaped the French Enlightenment during the 18th century. The best known philosophes were Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot.Other lesser-known figures included the mathematician and political.

The History of England » 18th century » The Rise of the

Until the age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, questions of Christian theology were the great issues that divided opinion in France, as in the rest of Europe; but from the 18th century on, in France as elsewhere in Europe, thinkers of the Enlightenment moved the arguments on to new areas, replacing arguments about which form of religion. In Europe, the eighteenth century was a period of intellectual, social, and political ferment. This time is often referred to as the Age of Enlightenment, for it was in the 18th century that the ideas of the previous 100 years were implemented on a broad scale. In academia, the relatively-new fields of calculus and mechanics began to influence. The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century and The Political Revolutions of the 18th Century At first glance, there may not seem to be much of a connection between the Scientific Revolution that took place in Western Europe starting in the 17th century CE, and the political revolutions that took place in Western Europe and its colonies beginning in the late 18th century The first steps toward industrialization took place in the middle of the 18th century. The initial focus was on specific areas of North America and Europe, with Great Britain leading the way into this new economy. Its initial characteristics included shifts from rural work, technological progress, and changes in class consciousness The early eighteenth century: The White Look. In the eighteenth century, men (see fig. 1 & 3), women, and sometimes children (on fig. 2 Henry Benedict Stuart was only 13yo) wore make-up in order to match their social status. The aristocrats at court painted their faces, but also the bourgeoisie and even the middle-classes complied.

The eighteenth century France witnessed the emergence of

China's agricultural revolution and productivity surpassed the West to the 18th century. Its innovations in the production of paper, book printing, firearms, and tools led to a manufacturing superpower whose goods were transported throughout the world by the most advanced navigational system Another development in Britain during industrial revolution era was construction of canals. Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to connect the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country

Rise of the Middle Class Encyclopedia

The origins of capitalism: 13th - 16th century: The underlying theme of capitalism is the use of wealth to create more wealth. The simplest form of this is lending money at interest, reviled in the Middle Ages as the sin of usury.At a more sophisticated level capitalism involves investing money in a project in return for a share of the profit The transatlantic slave trade directly led to the rise of many sea-port towns, notably Bristol and Liverpool in Britain, Nantes and Bordeaux in France, and Seville in Spain. Towns that were manufacturing centres often grew in places connected to these ports. And it was in these manufacturing centres that the 'Industrial Revolution' took place The Struggle for Control of France. The English king controlled much of France, particularly in the fertile South. These lands had come under control of the English when Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress to the region, had married Henry II of England in the mid-12th century the middle of the 18th century. However, with its imports consituting 4-6 per cent of its food needs, it was also not the England of the end of the 19th century which, like the Netherlands of the 17th century or certain Italian city-states of the 13-14th century, fed its urban population largely with im-ported cereals Working population, lower middle class, a part of the new manufacturers, the intellectuals and the discontented with the new liberal regime. Nationalism Within 19th-century revolutionary movements, nationalism is fed by a double source: the idea of nation burst during French Revolution , and the idea of nation of German origin, linked to.

Age of Enlightenment - Wikipedi

Those were among the reasons for the partial abandonment, in the middle of the century, of the system of public rewards. [35] The conjecture I have offered is relevant not only to an explanation of why crimes were prosecuted, but also to another issue raised in modern discussions of 18th century English law: its relation to the system of class. Rococo Nymphenburg Porcelain group (1756) Bavarian National Museum. By Franz Anton Bustelli. Introduction. Centred in France and emerging as a reaction to the Baroque grandeur of King Louis XIV's royal court at the Palace of Versailles, the Rococo movement or style of French painting was associated particularly with Madame Pompadour, the mistress of the new King Louis XV, and the Parisian. Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Europe - Robert Brenner. Robert Brenner's influential essay on the origins of capitalism, arguing that the balance of class forces in the countryside was crucial to the rise and dominance of capitalist wage labour relations. General interpretations of the processes of long-term.