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VA shunt malfunction symptoms

The most common symptom of shunt malfunction is recurrent headaches. However, any of the above symptoms should prompt evaluation by the treating physicians Symptoms of a shunt malfunction may be obvious, redness over the shunt, headache, sleepiness, vomiting, or visual changes. Symptoms may also be subtle, change in behavior, change in school performance. Typically, shunt malfunction is suspected when one or more of the symptoms of hydrocephalus observed prior to shunting return Some of the symptoms of Hydrocephalus may include headache, personality disturbances and loss of intellectual abilities, reduced activity, drowsiness, neck pain, blurred vision, double vision, difficulty walking, irritability, vomiting, or abnormal eye movements. What are the Complications of a VP shunt The signs and symptoms of a shunt malfunction include a low grade fever if an infection is present, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. The patient may also experience soreness in the muscles of the neck or shoulders, and tenderness and inflammation where the shunt has been inserted

Signs And Symptoms Of Vp Shunt Malfunctio

  1. ent scalp veins, swelling along the shunt tract
  2. Shunts require monitoring and regular medical checkups. Multiple surgeries may be needed to repair or replace a shunt throughout a person's lifetime. Seek medical help immediately if symptoms develop that suggest the shunt system is not working properly. Signs and symptoms of shunt malfunction may include: headach
  3. Often patients will present with symptoms of shunt malfunction as well as symptoms of infection, such as fever, however, this is not universally the case. Patients with shunt malfunction due to any cause may present with nausea, vomiting, headache and fever, although fever is more common in patients with shunt infection [ 17, 18 ]
  4. Shunt overdrainage. Shunt disconnection. Shunt obstruction. Shunt migration. Ventricular catheter misplacement. see Ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. Distal shunt malfunction due to a mechanical failure is a common reason for shunt revision 5).. As many as one third of patients presenting with shunt malfunction will not have the diagnosis of shunt malfunction supported by a prospective.
  5. Persistent headaches, vomiting, and drowsiness are all signs that a shunt system may not be functioning properly. While these symptoms are associated with shunt dysfunction, the symptoms could also be indicative of an illness or disorder not related to the shunt. This poses a challenge for our community and for physicians
  6. The second most common reason for being sued for negligence in neurosurgery is a problem related to hydrocephalus management (the first being spinal surgery!). However, the good news is that the overall standard of care for patients with hydrocephalus appears to have greatly improved over the last 10 years with the advent of better facilities for investigation, new approaches to treatment, and.

Learning from past experience during her first pregnancy, a shunt revision was performed explanting the valve, and once again leaving her with a valveless VA shunt. This relieved her symptoms. At 28 weeks pregnant the patient was admitted emergently with headache and nausea. She developed drowsiness and a CT scan confirmed hydrocephalus The shunt can become obstructed at any section of the system, from the ventricular catheter in the brain to the distal catheter. 22 Because a VPS obstruction leads to increased ICP, signs and symptoms include headache, vomiting, lethargy, irritability, and confusion. 23 The VPS can also malfunction if the catheter disconnects, migrates, or fractures. Less common signs of a shunt problem include: Seizures (either the onset of new seizures or an increase in the frequency of existing seizures) A change in intellect, school performance or personality Back pain at the spine closure sit Headaches Vomiting Lethargy (sleepiness) Irritability Swelling or redness along the shunt tract Seizures Fever Weakness or gait issues Incontinence Periods of confusion Decreased school performance It is important to note that more subtle signs can include fatigue, behavioral changes, lethargy and/or decline in academic performance

Complications of Shunt Systems Hydrocephalus Associatio

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal complications. Abdominal complications include peritonitis , ascites, bowel and abdominal wall perforation, and inguinal hernias. Abdominal complications are reported in 5-47 % of ventriculoperitoneal shunt cases 1) 2). Spontaneous knotting of the peritoneal catheter is a rare complication of the VP shunt 3) junction with signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus. When underdrainage occurs, the patient may need a shunt revision or, if the valve can be externally adjusted, the valve set-tings can be interrogated and reset magnetically.6,22 VPS complications Shunt malfunction and infection are the most common VPS complications, according to the Hydrocephalu

Background: Shunt nephritis is a rare, reversible immune-complex mediated complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection that can progress to end-stage renal disease and even death if diagnosis is delayed. Case description: The present case report details the manifestation and clinical course of shunt nephritis in a 50-year-old patient who presented with symptoms of nephrotic. Shunt Malfunctions If your child becomes very ill (persistent vomiting, extreme sleepiness, severe headache), seek medical assistance immediately. Call your child's doctor if you think that your child is having a shunt malfunction based on the symptoms described above. Remember that you may see only one or two warning signs at a time Patients with shunt fracture or disconnection can present with a slow onset of symptoms. They may have pain/tenderness localized to the area of fracture/disconnection or an area of calcification of an area of fluctuant swelling. Diagnosis, evaluation, and imagin The signs and symptoms of a VP shunt infection include: A fever of 100.4° F (38° C) or higher; Redness, swelling, or both, of the skin that runs along the shunt path; Pain around the shunt or around the shunt catheter from the head to the abdomen; These warning signs can happen quickly. If any of these symptoms develop, call your doctor or.

Shunt problems. A shunt is a delicate piece of equipment that can malfunction, usually by becoming blocked or infected. It's estimated up to 4 in 10 shunts will malfunction in the first year after surgery. Sometimes, a scan after the operation shows the shunt is not in the best position and further surgery is needed to reposition it VP shunt malfunction is a fairly common problem, and shunt failures often result in symptomatology necessitating revision. The problem may be distal, proximal, or both. Although not reported in the literature, it is logical that adult constipation, ileus, or small bowel obstruction (SBO) can alter the pressure balance needed for proper distal. The most predictive factors of failure are bulging fontanel, fluid collection along the shunt, depressed level of consciousness, irritability, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, abnormal shunt pump test, accelerated head growth, and headache Hearing loss is a common manifestation of the long-term complications in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus along with motor development disturbance, cognitive and visual impairment, epilepsy and endocrine disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of hearing i A shunt is a hollow tube surgically placed in the brain (or occasionally in the spine) to help drain cerebrospinal fluid and redirect it to another location in the body where it can be reabsorbed. Shunt procedures can address pressure on the brain caused by hydrocephalus and relieve its symptoms such as gait difficulty, mild dementia and lack.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of a Shunt Malfunction

This is achieved with a ventriculoatrial shunt (VA Shunt). This procedure is also well tolerated and carries similar risks to a VP shunt. Though the risk to the abdominal organs is eliminated, there is a slightly higher risk of bloodstream infections or heart valve infection (endocarditis). Also, there is a higher risk in patients with cardiac. (2) Nephritis is a rare but particular complication that can result from a VA shunt. (3) A shunt might be exposed to infection if the patient develops bacteremia. (4) Use of a shunt can worsen certain cardiac or pulmonary conditions and can exacerbate pulmonary hypertension. (5) The distal catheter can lead to thromboembolic complications Warning signs of a shunt malfunction include fever, irritability, headaches, a change in personality and redness or inflammation along the shunt's path, according to the Hydrocephalus Association. Additionally, some signs are specific to particular age groups, such as the enlargement of the baby's head in infants, difficulty waking up in. Shunt Malfunction: is a partial or complete blockage of the shunt that causes it to function intermittently or not at all. When a blockage occurs, CSF accumulates and can result in symptoms of untreated hydrocephalus. A shunt blockage from blood cells, tissue or bacteria can occur in any part of the shunt

Ventriculoatrial (VA) Shunt VA shunts are less common than VP shunts and fairly similar. The only difference is that rather than finishing in the peritoneal cavity, the VA shunt finishes in the right atrium of the heart and CSF is absorbed via the bloodstream (Rinker et al. 2015) I have Psuedo Tumor Cerebri I am 30yrs old. I was diagnosed a year and a half ago I have had my shunt for 1yr now. Just recently i have started to have problems. A few days ago I started having dizzy spells and feeling disoriented. Yesterday woke up with a massive headache, severe dizziness and.. Shunt malfunction A partial or complete blockage of the shunt system is know as a shunt malfunction. (Hydrocephalus Association, 2014) When this occurs, cerebrospinal fluid builds up and causes symptoms similar to those seen with untreated hydrocephalus

Jan 07, 2009 #2. 2009-01-07T21:30. Hi Chris, I have an opinion about VA vs VP Shunts, but it not about it clogging less or needing fewer adjustments. I believe VA's need just as many adjustments and revisions because the ventricle in the brain is the clogging problem. The part I have found is far better is that the end of the tubing is not in. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complications include blockage and infection - early and prompt detection of shunt dysfunction is vital as delay can lead to markedly raised intracranial pressure, coning and death. All patients with suspected VP shunt dysfunction should be discussed with neurosurgery The shunt can become obstructed at any section of the system, from the ventricular catheter in the brain to the distal catheter. 22 Because a VPS obstruction leads to increased ICP, signs and symptoms include headache, vomiting, lethargy, irritability, and confusion. 23 The VPS can also malfunction if the catheter disconnects, migrates, or. Symptoms of shunt malfunction or ETV closure vary considerably from person to person, but recurring failures tend to have similar symptoms for a particular person. When an abrupt malfunction occurs, symptoms can develop very rapidly potentially leading to coma and possibly death

VP shunts do not work forever. When the shunt stops working: The child can have another buildup of fluid in the brain. Another surgery is needed to fix it. Problems with a VP shunt happen even with regular care and at unpredictable times. The shunt can get worn out or move as a child grows. A shunt also can get infected, which can be very serious Some of the most common risks of CSF shunts include infection, shunt malfunction, and improper drainage. Infection from a shunt may produce symptoms such as a low-grade fever, soreness of the neck or shoulder muscles, and redness or tenderness along the shunt tract 3. Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt: All shunt valves are available for VA shunts. However, the merit of the valve with a membrane-type antisiphon mechanism is minimal because the siphon effect itself is small in the VA shunt. 4 A recent study by Piatt et al 1 attempted to quantify the power of various symptoms and sign to predict shunt malfunction or infection. Table 8.1.2 shows the strongly predictive signs and symptoms that allow referral to be made on the basis of that single finding. This may be done even before computerised tomography (CT) scanning, as the.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Shunt Malfunction

  1. Shunt malfunction can also present with chronic manifestations such as mild psychomotor retardation, decreased vision, impaired ocular motility, unsteady gait and falls, mood changes, decreased school performance, increased tone and reflexes in the lower limbs, or symptoms and signs of brain stem involvement or of hydromyelia [51, 57]. In.
  2. VA shunts became accepted treatment for hydrocephalus in the late 1950s. They substantially reduced the mortality of hydrocephalus, but were associated with complications of shunt malfunction, infections, and thromboembolism.1-3 Thromboembolic complications of VA shunts usually occur early after shunt insertion, 1
  3. A DAY BEFORE COLLEGE BEGAN!! so since then ive been in and out of hospital, for operations, corrective operations, procedures, tests, appointments, post ops check ups etc, and then when im not in hospital i have bad days, shunt pains, stomach pain (before the VA shunt) since september i have had 4 acedemic subjects cut down to just one now.
  4. Approximately 50% of all shunt malfunctions arise from obstruction of either the proximal catheter (70%), distal catheter (20%), or other portions of the shunt (10%). The remainder of shunt failures can be divided into shunt infection (see next section), component fracture, skin breakdown, or symptoms related to shunt overdrainage

Shunt complications. Examples of possible complications include shunt malfunction, shunt failure, and shunt infection. Although a shunt generally works well, it may stop working if it disconnects, becomes blocked (clogged), infected, or it is outgrown local hospital immediately, if you see any signs or symptoms of shunt failure. If your child's shunt is not working properly, the pressure will return to the brain. Signs that the shunt is not working are the same as the signs of hydrocephalus, listed above. Your child may have the same signs as before their shunt was put in or there may be new.

A new device developed by two heart device manufacturers — called the interatrial shunt — is currently being tested in clinical trials at several sites nationwide, including at U.Va. Health. If the results of the trial prove promising, these devices could help ease symptoms in heart failure patients and increase their quality of life The longer the symptoms have been present, the less likely it is that treatment will be successful. Unfortunately, there is no accurate way to predict how successful surgery will be for each individual. Some patients will improve dramatically, while others will reach a plateau or decline after a few months. Shunt malfunction or failure may occur A literature search was performed in PubMed using the search terms ventriculoperitoneal shunt, VP shunt, complication, pediatric, paediatric, infant, child, and adolescent.For completeness, the terms ventriculoatrial shunt, VA shunt, and ventriculopleural shunt were also searched.More than 1300 articles published since 1970 were found, and over 250 articles were reviewed, based on the clinical. Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt complications include septicemia, shunt embolus, endocarditis, and pulmonary hypertension. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of shunt malfunction or infection and the necessity for emergent medical evaluation in these instances is mandatory in patients, family members, and caregivers

An infection can develop in the fluid, at the surgical site, or the shunt itself. Symptoms of a shunt infection may include a sore neck, headache, and fever. Babies are especially susceptible to develop an infection due to their immature immune system. Shunt malfunction: The shunt can also malfunction, which causes it to fail. According to the. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a medical device that surgeons use to treat hydrocephaly. The article looks at the types, procedure, possible complications, and tips for recovery Introduction. Ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt insertion is commonly performed in the management of communicating hydrocephalus, mitigating the risk of rising intracranial pressure and cerebral herniation through diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the peritoneal cavity [].VP shunts have reported failure rates between 30% and 50% over two years [2, 3] symptoms of a shunt that is not working are different in different children. If a shunt problem happens suddenly, a child may develop symptoms suddenly, too. The early symptoms of a shunt malfunction (shunts that are not working) are: • Headache • Vomiting • Irritability or sleepiness VA shunt right atrium of the hear

The signs of a shunt malfunction are similar to the signs of hydrocephalus. The symptoms are a result of pressure again building up within the head. Call your child's doctor immediately if and when these symptoms develop. Shunt Revisions. When a shunt is not working well, all or part of it must be replaced. This is done in the operating room Shunt system. A shunt drains excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to another part of the body, such as the abdomen, where it can be more easily absorbed. Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics Also, symptoms of a shunt malfunction can vary from child to child. If a sudden malfunction happens, a child may develop symptoms rapidly. The early symptoms of shunt malfunction or The VA shunt is tunneled under the skin and placed into a large vein that carries blood to the heart. The shunt can be felt under the skin Postpartum complications in ventriculoperitoneal shunt-dependent women Postpartum complications were reported in only 5 (13.2%) among 38 women included in the current review. Shunt malfunction and shunt infection were reported in four and one women respectively. Women's age varied from 19 to 34 years, and shunting duration varied from 3 to 34.

Sentara Healthcare today announced that it has joined a large clinical study (RELIEVE-HF) investigating the V-Wave Ventura® Interatrial Shunt, a novel medical device designed to help patients with advanced heart failure. For the first time, we have a device to help patients with diastolic and systolic heart failure which was not available before The incidence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure ranges from 25% to 40% at 1 year and 63% to 70% at 10 years [].Failure rates with ventriculoatrial and ventriculopleural shunts are slightly higher [].Patient presentation varies depending on patient age as well as the cause and acuity of failure [].Symptoms with the highest positive predictive value include nausea and vomiting and decreased. Shunt nephritis is a rare disease of the kidney that can occur in patients being treated for hydrocephalus with a cerebral shunt.It usually results from an infected shunt that produces a long-standing blood infection, particularly by the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis.Kidney disease results from an immune response that deposits immune complexes in the kidney

The incidence of shunt failure at 6 months was 15.2%, and the overall incidence of shunt failure was 82.9%. Single shunt revision occurred in 26.7% of the patients, and 56.2% had multiple shunt. VP shunt operations have been widely performed for the treatment of hydrocephalus [2, 3], whereas VA shunt operations are commonly performed only in patients with VP shunt failure. There have no studies to compare these surgical procedures in the efficacy of treatment for idiopathic hydrocephalus Shuntogram in a patient with hydrocephalus treated with a VA shunt. A demonstrates the radionuclide SP study for an overdrainage of VA shunt. The emptying half-time for the shunt reservoir is 3.3. - shunt systems require monitoring and medical follow up - children with SB who have shunts normally have 2 shunt revisions prior to 10 years signs and symptoms of a shunt malfunction in a infan

Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet National Institute of

A 12yo patient with a VP shunt presents with vomiting. What additional historical information should you obtain to aid in diagnosing a possible shunt malfunction? Question for Discussion. Date of last shunt revision. Symptoms with previous malfunction. History of diarrhea or other signs of other cause of vomitin Neither daughter has problems with flying; one has a venticuloperitoneal shunt (VP) shunt, the other a ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt. If you are traveling overseas, contact HA to get further information regarding available surgeons/facilities. You may want to purchase travel insurance just as a safety net The VP shunt catheter is frequently obstructed during the third trimester as a result of increased intraabdominal pressure. 5 The most common symptoms of shunt malfunction include headache, nausea and vomiting. 4,6,7 A standard managament for shunt malfunction during pregnancy has not been established yet. 6 The management of pregnancy in women.

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: A review

Virginia Dept. of Education: A Parent's Guide to Special Education Wright's Law. Additional Resources VP Shunt (ventriculoperitoneal shunt) Malfunctions In hydrocephalus, the ventricles of the brain become enlarged with fluid of the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid) replacement of the shunt system. Signs and symptoms of an infection include: VA 22209 • 800-621-3141 Making decisions The opinion of a health care provider is very important when working with someone with Spina Bifida and shunted hydrocephalus triad, short duration of symptoms, mild dementia, lack of cerebral atrophy in combination with enlarged ventricles and intermittent CSF pressure elevations •Complications of shunt procedures include shunt malfunction, subdural hematoma, infection, seizure •Proper selection of patients and use of appropriat In adults with hydrocephalus (usually called NPH) if the shunt is not draining properly, either from the rate or a malfunction, one of the NPH symptoms that is the quickest to return is incontinence. The NS can usually reset the valve to correct that VP Shunt, also known as a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, is a type of medical device that is used to relieve pressure on the brain that builds up from fluid accumulation. A VP shunt is used to treat a condition called hydrocephalus. This condition is characterized by an accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain's ventricles

Shunt complications. Examples of possible complications include shunt malfunction, shunt failure, and shunt infection. Although a shunt generally works well, it may stop working if it disconnects, becomes blocked (clogged), infected, or it is outgrown Jul 1, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by Emma Dibben. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinteres Change in visual acuity (VA) is a rare received initial shunt insertions were excluded from the study. but alarming finding in shunt failure [1, 4, 14, 16]. This Clinical records and original neuroradiographic studies were avail- 227 Table 1 Clinical characteristics in six patients with changes in visual acuity (VA) associated with shunt failure Shunt Obstruction. Obstruction is the most common complication of shunting. The blockage may occur at any point along the shunt, and will produce signs and symptoms of increased pressure in the head. These symptoms will vary depending upon the degree of obstruction and person's age. Symptoms of obstruction may include: Periodic headach Generally, there is around a 50% failure rate for ventriculoperitoneal shunts. The shunt tubing can become infected or obstructed requiring surgical revision. Endoscopic third ventriculosotomy (ETV) is an alternative treatment that has a higher success rate but only available for select patients (see endoscopic third ventriculosotomy)

Shunt Malfunction Signs

Placement of a shunt is a very safe procedure. However, complications can occur during or after the procedure. Risks associated with any surgical procedure include excessive bleeding and infection VA or VPL shunts might be preferable to avoid uterine trauma on the placement of a distal catheter. Moreover, shunt revisions in the case of VA shunts have also been reported . Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is one treatment modality for pregnant patients with newly diagnosed obstructive hydrocephalus and malfunction of a preexisting shunt

Shunt malfunction - Neurosurger

Symptoms. Small arteriovenous fistulas in your legs, arms, lungs, kidneys or brain often won't have any signs or symptoms and usually don't need treatment other than monitoring by your doctor. Large arteriovenous fistulas may cause signs and symptoms. Arteriovenous fistula signs and symptoms may include Risks for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are: Blood clot or bleeding in the brain. Brain swelling. Hole in the intestines (bowel perforation), which can occur later after surgery. Leakage of CSF fluid under the skin. Infection of the shunt, brain, or in the abdomen. Damage to brain tissue tion. The shunt was removed and an external ventricular drainage was placed instead. The peritoneal part of the shunt was removed by a second cystoscopy. The blood cultures indicated an E-coli strain and the proper antibiotics were administered. Image 1: The cystoscopy revealed the peritoneal part of the VP shunt inside the bladder In patients with shunt infection (incidence: 4%), exteriorization of the catheter and treatment with antibiotics is suggested. In patients with associated defects in the diaphragm, repositioning the shunt into the peritoneum will need a diaphragmatic repair also, or the shunt may have to be converted to a VA shunt Generally, it is obvious when a shunt malfunctions. Signs of an overt failure would include recurring, intensifying headache and/or irritability, lethargy, nausea and/or vomiting with loss of appetite, and loss of the ability to look upwards. Subtle symptoms can also suggest a problem with the shunt

PPT - VP Shunts PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3387790

The Challenge of Diagnosing Shunt Dysfunctio

Normal pressure hydrocephalus is generally a long-term condition. Patients diagnosed with NPH can often obtain substantial relief from the placement of a surgical shunt. The shunt will aid in the draining of excess CSF and keep the symptoms manageable. Patients with NPH will always need to be under the care of an experienced physician Pulmonary shunt is a respiratory problem where gas exchange fails to take place in the lungs, leading to low oxygen levels in the blood. This can cause problems for the patient, as lack of oxygen will injure organs and tissues. Most commonly, patients experience pulmonary shunt as a symptom of a larger respiratory problem shunt failure occurs in 14% of children in the first month, 50% in first year Symptoms of Complications Adults: nausea/vomiting, lethargy, AMS, ataxia, CN palsies, paralysis of upward gaze (sunset eyes), seizure A definition of shunt failure was based on the return of the preoperative symptoms and high CSF opening pressure. Results Seven patients were presented with IIH and lumboperi-toneal shunt malfunction. These patients were treated by insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt). All patients were female (100%). Age ranged from 2 The the management of hydrocephalus in pregnant women overall rate and severity of VA shunt-related complications with VP shunt malfunction has not been established. are greater than those of VP shunt-related complications Careful management of this rare condition is required [2, 7]. In some patients with VP shunt malfunction who during pregnancy

Hydrocephalus and Shunts: What the Neurologist Should Know

Shunt infections may be treated with antibiotics, but sometimes surgery might be needed to replace the shunt. Other causes of shunt failure include the shunt becoming blocked, by healthy cells in the brain for example. This will cause excess CSF to build up inside the brain, leading to more symptoms of hydrocephalus Patients with colonization of VA shunt valves treated with antibiotics alone (n=14); removal and immediate replacement of shunt (n=23); or removal of shunt with a period of external drainage, followed by delayed shunt insertion (n=18). Outcome = alive and well at 6 months. Class III. Retrospective case series. Poor control of confounder Shunt malfunction and/or failure is common (40% fail in the first year of placement) Failures can be mechanical (fracture, obstruction, dislodged) or related to infection; Symptoms of shunt failure are diverse and often non-specific; ALWAYS take parental concerns seriously! Reviewer: Yunika Presson, CPNP (Department of Neurosurgery) Reference Many authors use the CDC definition which is based on positive cultures, clinical symptoms, and labora- tory findings [96], while other authors use a definition of positive CSF culture only [97]. Standardizing the diagnostic criteria for VRI is challenging because organisms can colonize the catheter o

LearningRadiologyPPT - VP Shunts PowerPoint Presentation, free download(PDF) Outcome of Systemic-to-Pulmonary Shunts in Cyanotic

Among 34 patients who underwent 41 shunt procedures, an overall proximal shunt failure rate of 2.9% was seen over a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. The mean time until single proximal shunt failure in this series was 41.9 months; in this case, the valve, not the proximal catheter, had failed The long-term results of ETV are similar to those for a shunt operation. As with shunts, there's a risk of a blockage happening months or years after surgery, which will cause your symptoms to return. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), which usually affects older people, can sometimes be treated with a shunt Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most common type of shunt. It usually drains CSF from the lateral ventricle to the peritoneal cavity; in children, it has the advantage that the distal peritoneal part may be left long and will not require changing during the growth of the child. The other common type is a ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) shunt In this paper, we review the indications, complications, and pitfalls associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. As most VP shunt problems initially present to the emergency department, it is important for emergency physicians to be well-versed in managing them. In the article, the possible reasons for shunt failure are explored and summarized using an infographic