Polyploidy in fishes SlideShare

• Polyploid animals are often sterile, so they often reproduce by parthenogenesis. • Polyploid salamanders and lizards are also quite common and parthenogenetic. • While mammalian liver cells are polyploid, rare instances of polyploid mammals are known, but most often result in prenatal death. 27 28 Polyploidy breeding 1. Polyploidy and It's Application in plant breeding PRESENTED BY: Pawan Nagar Reg. no.: 04-2690- 2015 M.Sc.(Fruit Science) 2. Introduction Polyploidy involves three or more sets of chromosomes , and may occur naturally or by induction. Nearly all plants and animals probably have some polyploid tissues Allopolyploidy in Animals • In animals, allopolyploidy is rare. Allopolyploidy was found in insects, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. For example, Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog of laboratory fame, is an allotetraploid. No cases of polyploidy have ever been found in birds

Ploidy presentation - SlideShar

The breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments, including ponds, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. 5. Importance• Seafood being the most common food all around the world.•. Aquaculture help us learn more about fish and seafood, and in the future help us to rebuild some of our wild fish stocks.• The induction of polyploidy in fishes is routine in aquaculture, and can produce either triploids or tetraploids, although the methods by which polyploidy is induced vary. Typically, these methods involve pressure shocks (Chourrot, 1984) or temperature shocks (Diter, Quillet & Chourrot, 1993; Horváth & Orbán, 1995) GISH AND FISH 1. SANDESH G M PALB 8079 I Ph.D, GPB GKVK 2. Chromosome Chromosomes are rod-shaped, filamentous bodies. Present in the nucleus and become visible during cell division. They are the carriers of genes or unit of heredity. Chromosomes are not visible in active nucleus due to their high water content, but are clearly seen during cell division Indian Journal of Biotechnology Vol.4, July 2005, pp. 307-315 FISH and GISH: Modern cytogenetic techniques J Devi1*, J M Ko2 and B B Seo3 1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785 013, India 2 National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station, Milyang 627 130, Korea 3 Department of Biology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702 701, Kore APPLICATION OF BREEDING AND SELECTION THEORY ON FARMED FISH Hans B. Bentsen AKVAFORSK (Institute of Aquaculture Research) P.O. Box 10, N-1432 As-NLH, Norway SUMMARY The present production of fanned fish for human consumption represents a minor fraction of the total food supply. The prospects of increasing the production significantly are good

Polyploidy breeding - SlideShar

Polyploidy is much rarer in animals. It is found in some insects, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Until recently, no polyploid mammalwas known. However, the 23 September 1999 issue of Naturereported that a polyploid (tetraploid; 4n= 102) rat has been found in Argentina Polyploidy is also common among algae, but estimates of its incidence are rare. Nevertheless, algae seem similar to angiosperms. Polyploidy must reach very high levels in algae, as chromosome numbers from eight to over 500 are known, and allopolyploidy is regarded as a major factor in the evolution of some groups (such as Rhodophyta) (Nichols. Among animals, polyploidy is often observed in bony fish and amphibians. In general, there is a genetic bias for even ploidy numbers in animals. Critters with uneven numbers of 'books,' or with..

Allopolyploid - SlideShar

  1. Polyploidy has been observed to occur in nature in some species of fish like the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and trout mainly due to chromosomal translocation and when two distantly related fish species are crossed. The crosses between grass carp and bighead carp had produced triploid hybrids (Marian and Krasznai, 1978)
  2. By Ethan Nielsen Polyploidy refers to when an organism has more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first discovered nearly one hundred years ago, however, many new insights are being realized today in how it can be used in plant breeding. Using aspects of polyploidy gives plant breeders more options for developing nove
  3. 3. (3) What is the practical interest of those hybrids for aquaculture? Three types of parameters are investigated: viability, growth characteristics, sexual maturation (sex ratio and fertility). Some possibilities for research are described, especially the production of monosex or polyploid hybrids, the genetic improvement of hybrids and the.

University of Housto

Aquaculture - SlideShar

Polyploid breeding . The source for plant breeding is variations in plants.. Heritable and desirable variations occur in nature by mutation, polyploidy, recombination and chromosomal aberrations. A diploid plant has two sets of chromosomes but any organism in which the number of sets of chromosome is doubled is called a polyploid Haploid, abbreviated as n, means 1 set of chromosomes. Aneuploidy means an organism does not have the normal number of chromosomes. If there is 1 less chromosome, this is referred to as monosomic.

Polyploidy or the presence of three or more sets of genomes in an organism is one of the important phenomenon commonly found in plants. The process is central to the evolutionary history since it reveals the pattern of gene duplication and speciation. The article gives a brief account of the causes and different types of polyploidy Hormone-induced spawning is the only reliable method to induce reproduction in these fishes. Hormone-induced spawning of fish has been used for almost 60 years. Surprisingly, the same procedures, with only minor modifications, have been used to spawn an entire range of fishes from the ancient sturgeon and paddlefish to carp, catfish, salmon. Interspecific hybridization of salmonid fish. I. Hatching and survival up to the 15th day after hatching in Fl generation hybrids. Aquaculture, 18: 21-34. Blanc, J.M. and Chevassus, B., 1982. Interspecific hybridization of salmonid fish. II. Survival and growth up to the 4th month after hatching in Fl generation hybrids. Aquaculture, 29: 383-387 Polyploidy, the condition in which a normally diploid cell or organism acquires one or more additional sets of chromosomes.In other words, the polyploid cell or organism has three or more times the haploid chromosome number.Polyploidy arises as the result of total nondisjunction of chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis It is concluded that by using caution in the evaluation of slides, interphase studies using FISH to detect hyperdiploidy and polyploidy can provide estimates of numerical alterations which closely reflect those seen during metaphase analysis using either FISH or conventional approaches

Some fish also are polyploid; in two cases, it appears that a single polyploid event gave rise to an entire taxonomic family in evolution. This situation contrasts with that of amphibians and reptiles because in those cases the polyploids all have closely related diploid species , and, hence, the polyploid events do not seem to have been. The advantage of polyploidy in fishes is not only an increase in their potential for adaptability to the environment but also an enhancement of their reproductive efficiency . In fact, C . gachua can live in higher mountain areas with fluctuating climates and can tolerate very stagnant, poorly oxygenated, turbid and even foul water, besides. T. RYAN GREGORY, BARBARA K. MABLE, in The Evolution of the Genome, 2005. JAWLESS FISHES. The jawless fishes of the superclass Agnatha are among the most primitive of vertebrates. According to Potter and Robinson's (1973) bold claim, in the lampreys polyploidy has played a more striking role than in any other vertebrate.Lampreys (class Cephalaspidomorphi) do possess a large number of. Fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren in J Ga Entomol Soc 7:1-26, 1972), an invasive alien ant species, first spread from South America to the United States in the 1930s, the southern part of the United States by the end of the twentieth century, Oceania, Taiwan, and China in the twenty-first century, and finally to Japan and South Korea in 2017. As these ants have significant negative. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most powerful technique at present, through which the target loci at the chromosome is hybridized with complemen­tary probe sequence, tagged with fluorescent compound. There are two approaches, namely direct or indirect, of FISH technique in plant chromosome

It uses fluorescence-based polynucleotide probe to detect chromosomal aneuploidy (increase or decrease in chromosome number). 48,49 The FISH assay includes a 4-probe mixture targeting chromosomes 3,7,17, and a locus-specific probe to 9p21 AQUACULTURE Presented by Sumedha Dahal 7th Semester Bsc Biotechnolog The other groups of fish in which functional diploidization has been investigated are salmonids, catostomids, and cyprinids (mainly barbins). The common ancestor of salmonids experienced a whole-genome duplication event between 25 and 100 million years ago, and modern species are in the process of reverting to a stable diploid state ( Allendorf.

Polyploidy in fishes: patterns and processes Biological

  1. Plant and Animal Genome Conference in San Diego #PAGXXV each January is the chance to join 3500 people working in genomics. I presented a talk on the molecular cytogenetics group's work, starting with consideration of early stages of crop domestication, and then thinking about how we can make agriculture more sustainable. I also considered weeds
  2. Notably, the near-universal occurrence of multiple polyploidy events in plant evolution is in complete contrast to the animal kingdom in both recent and long-term evolutionary history, where most analyses have found only one or two early WGD events, such as the R1 and R2 WGDs in the vertebrate stem lineage followed by another WGD in early fish.
  3. Polyploid organisms regularly produce gametes that would be considered unreduced if they were produced by a diploid organism. 12 For example, a tetraploid normally produces diploid gametes. Chourrout et al. (1986) exploited this fact to produce a triploid breed of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by crossing diploid and tetraploid forms.The haploid gametes of the former united with the.
  4. Polyploidy and body size variation in a natural population of the rotifer Euchlanis dilatata Polyploidy and body size variation in a natural population of the rotifer Euchlanis dilatata Walsh, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Lei 1992-03-01 00:00:00 (1992) lOlO-~061Xi92,â€⃜02345-09 c 1992 Birkhluser $ 1.50 + 0.20/O Verlag, Base1 Notes and comments Polyploidy and body size variation of the rotifer.
  5. ent involvement of abnormal megakaryocytes. The use of peripheral blood samples containing increased numbers of.
  6. Knowledge of the chromosome variation in wild populations is essential to understand the pathways and restrictions of karyotype evolution in plants. The aim of this study is to conduct an intraspecific analysis of the karyotypes by fluorochrome banding and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci detection by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and of the meiotic behaviour in natural populations of.
  7. ation, flow cytometry and morphological analysis (Brysting et al., 2003; Brysting et al., 2004)

• Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity • It is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes Polyploidy occurs in cells and organisms when there are more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. Polyploid types are labelled according to the number of chromosome sets in the nucleus: triploid (three sets; 3x), for example the genus Tardigrada. tetraploid (four sets; 4x), for example Salmonidae fish Journal of Fish Biology (1990) 37, 105-1 15 Hexaploidy in yellowfish species (Barbus, Pisces, Cyprinidae) from southern Africa AND P. H. SICELTON* L. K. OELLERMANN J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown 6140, Republic of South Africa (Received 18 July 1989, Accepted I February 1990) Five small-scaled yellowfish (large Burbus spp.) from southern Africa are shown to. (D) Representative FISH images for chromosome 2 (red) and 11 (green) on a diploid and polyploid tumor. (E) FISH using probes targeting chromosome 2 and 16 on a diploid tumor and a polyploid tumor. Experimental fish source. Gibel carp (C. gibelio) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from Guanqiao Experimental Station of the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is located in the Wuchang District, Wuhan, China.The experimental protocols were approved by the animal care and use committee of the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences


In biology, polyspermy describes an egg that has been fertilized by more than one sperm. Diploid organisms normally contain two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent.The cell resulting from polyspermy, on the other hand, contains three or more copies of each chromosome—one from the egg and one each from multiple sperm We applied fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using (GAA)10 microsatellite repeat alone or in combination with oligo pSc119.2-1, pTa535-1, pAs1-1, 5S and 45S rDNA probes to identify individual chromosomes and produce banded karyotypes for five allopolyploid Aegilops species that were thought to possess M subgenome. Labelling patterns of GAA repeats allow identification of individual. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the Genetic Variation: Types and Importance of Genetic Variations ! Variations are morphological, physiological, cytological and behaviouristic differences amongst the individuals of the same species and the offspring of the same parents. They are found in all the characters and in every conceivable direction. Therefore, no two individuals [ Despite the sporadic occurrence in higher vertebrates, polyploidy was repeatedly documented across several fish lineages and at different taxonomic levels, implying its independent and recurrent origin [24,25,26,27].Out of the four species placed in the tribe Probarbini, just two - P. jullieni and C. siamensis - have previously been cytogenetically analyzed One of the immediate and obvious consequences of polyploidy in plants is an increase in cell size which in turn leads to enlarged plant organs, a phenomenon termed gigas effect (Fig 5.4) (Acquaah, 2007; Levin, 1983; Stebbins, 1971). SURVEY . Ex: grasses and orchids. Uses of Ornamental Plants. banana, grape, fig, and chrysanthemum

FISH analysis revealed tumours to demonstrate either no am-plification, no amplification but polyploidy or amplification of the HER2 gene. FISH results and a comparison with the HercepTest score are outlined in Table II. All of the 31 cases demonstrated amplification (Fig. 2a). Areas of borderline gene amplification an Somatic chromosomes of a wild relative of sugarcane (Saccharum spontaneum L.) anther culture-derived clone (AP 85-361, 2n=32) were identified and characterized by computer-aided imaging technology and molecular cytological methods. The presence of four satellite chromosomes and four nearly identical chromosome sets suggests that the clone is a tetrahaploid with the basic number x=8. A. SNP array analysis identified 24 (37%) samples with selective amplification or imbalance of the HER2 region in the q-arm of chromosome 17. In contrast, only 15 (23%) tumors were found to have HER2 amplification by IHC and FISH analysis. In total, there was a discrepancy in 19 (29%) samples between SNP array and IHC/FISH analysis

(G and H) FISH for chromosomes 2, 11, X, 16 in vitro. (G) Representative images. (H) Percentage of total nuclei with the indicated number of FISH signals. 155-212 nuclei per condition were analyzed. Mean ± SD from three independent experiments. (I) Distribution of polyploid nuclei in BLP-stimulated MoNucl, BiNucl, and MultiNucl cells. (J and. Parthenogenesis helps in determining the sex of an individual in honey bees, wasps, etc. It supports the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Variations from populations are eliminated by parthenogenesis. It is the simplest, most stable and easy process of reproduction. Polyploidy in organisms is caused by parthenogenesis Fish-specific genome duplication was also reported in teleosts [18, 19, 30]. Polyploidy induces genome multiplication, resulting in redundant genes that provide genetic basic for specie evolution at the molecular level. Thus, frequent polyploidization may relate to the higher species variety of fish and other organisms [22-26]. In this study.

Evolution of polyploid Aegilops species constituting complex Crassa was studied using C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ten DNA probes. Genetic classification of nine of 14 chromosomes was suggested based on hybridization patterns of the D-genome specific repeats and distribution of rDNA loci; homoeologous groups and genome affinity of five chromosomes remain unknown hybrid and polyploid cereals in the middle east, and so on. Culminating in the work of Mendel (1866), plant breeders made a central contribution to elucidating the physical basis of inheritance in 19th century and continued to do so through much of the 20th centuries, and continue to do so (eg. McClintock 1978). Ploidy manipulation has been rarely used in the genetic improvement of cultured marine shrimps. Although polyploid induction has been proven to be successful in Penaeids, including the species Litopenaeus vannamei, the methodology still requires some improvements. In the present work, different thermal shock treatments on ploidy manipulation were tested and a protocol for detecting polyploid. Triploid syndrome, also called triploidy, is a chromosomal disorder in which a fetus has three copies of every chromosome instead of the normal two. If this occurs in only some cells, it is called mosaic triploidy and is less severe.. Most embryos with triploidy miscarry early in development

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) FISH was performed on all cases scoring 2+ on HercepTest ™ and for quality control purposes on a proportion of the divergent cases from the study group. Sections of 2-4-μm thickness were cut from paraffin blocks, mounted on Super Frost Plus slides and baked for 60 min at 60°C Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Ex: sunflower Ornamentals can be If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Fungicide, any toxic substance used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi. Classification of plant diseases.

evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations. The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory.. The diversity of the living world is staggering Errors in mitosis, meiosis, or fertilization cause polyploidy. E.g.: (a) 2 sperm + 1 egg --> 3N (b) Failure of anaphase separation in mitosis in germ line --> 4N gametocyte --> 2N gametes. Can be induced with agents that block spindle formation or dissolve spindle. Aneuploids result from nondisjunction Chromosome karyotyping analysis is particularly useful in determining species relationships and the origin of polyploid species. Identification of individual chromosomes is the foundation for karyotype development. For Fragaria (strawberry) species, definitive identification of the individual chromosomes is extremely difficult because of their small size and similar shape. Here, we identified. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a laboratory technique for detecting and locating a specific DNA sequence on a chromosome. The technique relies on exposing chromosomes to a small DNA sequence called a probe that has a fluorescent molecule attached to it. The probe sequence binds to its corresponding sequence on the chromosome Advancement in FISH methodology permits higher resolution with precise positioning of specific probes compared with traditional methods (Schwarzacher and Heslop- Harrison 2000). FISH technique was also used by Hwang et al. (2011) to create more precise karyotype investigations on 2x and 3x L. tigrinum chromosomes by using ribosomal DNA.

Polyploidy - Biology Page

Purpose: Asbestos causes DNA damage and the fibers, together with tobacco smoke, have a synergistic effect on lung cancer risk. We recently identified 18 chromosomal regions that showed differences in DNA copy number between the lung tumors of asbestos-exposed and nonexposed patients. One of the previously identified asbestos-associated chromosomal regions at 9q was further analyzed for. This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids. I tried to show different chromosomal abberations which can cause different abnormalities in different organisms Posts about polyploidy written by Pat Heslop-Harrison. 347. Wilkin P, Davis A, Demissew S, Etherington T, Goodwin M, Heslop-Harrison P, Schwarzacher T, Willis K. 2018 2. Hybridization and Polyploidy: Hybridization involves the interbreeding of two genetically different - individuals of two same or different species to produce hybrids while polyploidy means presence of more than two sets of chromosomes. Occasionally, the interspecific hybrids are produced naturally or artificially

Perspectives on polyploidy in plants - ancient and neo

Introduction. Polyploids are organisms that normally have three or more chromosome sets. Polyploidy is common in plants, and studies have shown that all angiosperms are ancient polyploids ().As research continues, increasing evidence has shown that polyploids are also widespread in animals and are mainly concentrated in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes (Mable, 2004; Gregory and Mable, 2005. Figure 2. histology and dual-target fluorescence in situ hybridization (Fish) with probe rmc11B022 for c hromosome 11p and rmc11p008 for chromosome 11q. (a) Case 2, normal CGH measurement; (b) case 13, gain of chromosome 11p; and (c) case 15, normal CGH measurement. FISH shows that infrequent cells with large nuclei (arrow) are polyploid; gree

Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood 1,2,3,4.Polyploidy, usually whole-genome duplication, is proposed to alter the rate. 10.3 Gene Pools and Speciation Essential idea: Gene pools change over time SlideShare Explorar Pesquisar Voc • The genome of modern cultivated sugarcane is large and complex, highly polyploid and vary in ch. # (around 100). • Originating from hybrids between two wild polyploid relatives, Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) 19 20. • Used to identify.

Polyploidy: Definition & Types - Video & Lesson Transcript

A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.Most organisms that create their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes.. In some species there are hermaphrodites. There are also some species that are only one sex due to parthenogenesis, the act of a female reproducing without fertilization Molecular Cytogenetics in Artificial Hybrid and Highly Polyploid Sturgeons: An Evolutionary Story Narrated by Repetitive Sequences. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 2013. M. Flajšhans. Petr Ráb. Radka Symonova. David Gela We thank V. Bedell, D. Bobadilla, J. Collins and M. Slovak in the City of Hope Cytogenetics Core Facility for technical assistance with the karyotype analysis and FISH detection of polyploid cells Distribution analysis of homoeologous segments in tetraploid cotton by FISH. (A) Figure showed that the identification of the BAC clone 75F07 (lane 5) containing the polymorphic locus of NAU837-205, and 68D15 (lane 6) containing the monomorphic locus NAU837-195 between TM-1 and Hai7124 by SSR marker NAU837. Lanes 1-4 were Hai7124, F 1 (TM-1 × Hai7124), TM-1 and restorer line -613-2R.

Genetic resources of Indian major carps - FA

Polyploidy, though, does not feature in the evolution of the other major plant group, gymnosperms, and very few recent polyploid gymnosperms have been discovered. In animals, polyploid species are well known among leeches, brine shrimp, and lizards, although many of these reproduce asexually as meiotic chromosome pairing is irregular The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of. The lung fishes have all the characters of a typical fish, but they are capable of respiring through lungs and possess a three chambered heart. (g) Latimeria (Coelacanth fish) is considered a connecting link between fish and amphibians. (h) Chimaera. It is a connecting link between cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes

Polyploidy in Plant Breeding Your Garden Variety Scientis

Hybridization in fish - ScienceDirec

The inter- formed FISH analysis on hepatocytes cultured in phase cells and probe signals were visualized vitro for up to 40 h, our results indicate that FISH under an Olympus BX51 microscope outfitted analysis performed directly after liver perfusion with a 175W Zenon lamp and DAPI, FITC, and best represents hepatocyte polyploidy, where in. 4.2. Toxicodynamics & Molecular Interactions. Author: Timo Hamers. Reviewers: Frank van Belleghem and Ludek Blaha. Learning goals. You should be able to. explain that a toxic response requires a molecular interaction between a toxic compound and its targe ADVERTISEMENTS: Difference between Qualitative Inheritance and Quantitative Inheritance are as follows ! It is the type of inheritance in which a single dominant gene influences a complete trait. Presence of two such dominant genes does not alter the phenotype. ADVERTISEMENTS: The genes in which dominant allele expresses the complete trait are called monogenes, e.g., TT [ Polyploidy is found in a significant fraction of high risk breast cancers. Although it comprises only 10-14% of breast cancer, this represents 20-28,000 cases per year. Moreover, we find that polyploid breast cancers have worse clinical outcomes than non-polyploid cancers, indicating a need for effective and specific therapies for these patients

Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breedin

ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the top seven evidences supporting organic evolution. Some of the evidences are: 1. Evidences from Palaeontology, 2. Evidences from Comparative Morphology, 3. Evidences from taxonomy, 4. Evidences from comparative physiology and biochemistry, 5. Evidences from Embryology-Doctrine of recapitulation or Biogenetic laws and few others. Evidences. PanI is a gene in cod fish that codes for an integral membrane protein called pantophysin. Two alleles of the gene, PanIA and PanIB, code for versions of pantophysin. Samples of cod fish were collected from 23 populations in the north Atlantic and tested to find the proportions of the alleles in each population

Help File - ISCN Symbols and Abbreviated Terms. ISCN Symbols and Abbreviated Terms. Symbols and abbreviated terms used in the description of chromosomes and chromosomal abnormalities are listed below. For a detailed discussion of these terms, consult ISCN (1995): An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature, Mitelman, F (ed); S. The polyploid nature of these cells was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect the presence of multiple copies of DNA in individual PGCCs. For Caco-2 cells FISH analyses yielded inconclusive results, possibly because this cell line already has a severely altered karyotype. However, as can be seen in Figure 3, while HCT. During the past decade, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become an important complementing application in genetic diagnostics. The use of variable FISH techniques enhances the thorough interpretation of numerical and complex chromosome aberrations, bridging the gap between conventional chromosome banding analysis and molecular genetic DNA studies